Yo Teach…! Or how to avoid teaching like Jason

Closing the Teach For America Blogging Gap
Sep 03 2012

More Unsolicited Advice for 2012ers: Don’t Let Gary Rubinstein Bully You!

Hey 2012 CMs!

I’m a 2011 corps member. I’m not a particularly good teacher; maybe not even a good teacher at all, though I try really hard to get better.  But nevertheless, I think I have some important advice that you can benefit from.

If someone uses your experience, which you so honestly and bravely share with the world on this here platform, as a means by which to make political statements or enhance their own relevancy in educational policy discussions, then that person’s advice is probably not worth heeding. I am, of course, referring to Gary Rubinstein’s current style of scouring the teachforus blogs for first year teachers who say something that he finds symptomatic of a larger TFA affliction, so that he can, at the author’s expense, ridicule them, make an anecdotal claim about TFA, and then cloak it in some BS advice, seeming like he has you and your students’ interests at heart.

A couple of examples of note:

In one post Gary attempts to give a CM feedback after reading his enthusiastic reflection about a successful first day of school.  Gary points out three “mistakes” the CM makes. He first warns against patting students on the back as they enter the classroom. Gary then remarks that the CM should not to shake hands on the first day of school, even though acclaimed teaching advice books (Harry Wong’s First Days of School and Teach Like a Champion among them) suggest otherwise. So far, the two mistakes he points out are commonplace tactics that many teachers, successful and unsuccessful, participate in. The third mistake Gary emphasizes is that the teacher states “My name is Mr. Goodier and you are going to be the best 7th grade writers in the state of Oklahoma.” Again, the advice is contestable: sure such a goal is impossible to achieve, but many would argue that its very impossibility and immeasurability makes it a good rallying cry for students.

But two things turn this post from mediocre advice giving into something I would categorize as bullying. First, Gary did not simply stumble upon this CM and realize he could help him out. A TFA official twitter account actually quoted and celebrated the CM’s writing goal. Gary wrote this post as a response, but instead of attacking the much less vulnerable and well-intentioned TFA PR machine, or engaging in the debate about what kind of expectations we should hold our students without embarrassing anyone, Gary spent 90% of his time tearing down the CM, again, exploiting “flaws” that are commonplace in most TFA (and many non-TFA) classrooms.

Gary claims that his “purpose, here, is NOT to ridicule this new corps member.  My hope is that my analysis of what he describes in his first day can be instructive to others (and to him) and help them all have better first years.” But the title of his piece is “How many things wrong with this first day?” Indeed, first year teachers are incredibly sensitive and vulnerable: they are on the verge of failing at something day after day they care deeply about. With such a snide title, Gary is either being totally disingenuous about the aims of his article or is simply obtuse about how to communicate feedback effectively. Either way, he is publicly making fun of someone working their butt off after their first day of school. To be fair, the CM did thank Gary for his advice, but what CM would dare seem ungrateful in such a public forum (I did the exact same thing when Gary misrepresented a post I had written about his views on teacher retention)?

Just tonight, Gary wrote another post, this time “advising” a CM who shared a story about a student in her classroom who stabbed another with a pencil. He advises her by arguing that she screwed up setting behavioral expectations at the beginning of the year, and now will most likely suffer a year of continually disruptive behavior, commenting “She ‘ain’t seen nothing yet.’” To begin, it is patently false that teachers with bad management at the beginning of the year will necessarily be stuck with misbehaving students all year long. Gary admits that many CMs attest to having behavioral turn-arounds in the middle of the year, but assumes that “most of them are lying.” What’s his evidence for such a bold claim? “I know from my own experience” he writes,  “that the kids let up on me a bit when there was about a month left of school, but that was out of pity rather than respect, and not after torturing me for nine months.” Of course starting strong behaviorally is incredibly important for new teachers, but “advising” that a bad start will all but condemn you to a year of frustration and failure will more often than not just allow teachers to lower their expectations and settle for something less than what they are capable of. His advice then is not just un-actionable, but likely to reduce a teacher’s effort and results.

But of course, the purpose of this post is not to give some advice to a first year teacher. It is to further his talking point that “Institute is not long enough…. It is not possible to learn how to manage a full size class this way, no matter how long you spend on detailed lesson plans or reflect on what your classroom management ‘system’ will be.” Once again, a lot of damage is being inflicted in order to harvest an anecdotal example that merely furthers a TFA critique that is anything but new.

Again, I believe this is bullying. It is using power as a relatively (by teachforus standards) well-known and well-read blogger to further oneself at the expense of people who are relatively vulnerable, sharing their inevitable failures in the first weeks of school. How do we know people are being hurt by this? Gary himself betrays this fact, stating, “Some of the posts I’ve referred to recently have suddenly disappeared.” Did TFA take down these posts (just like he mistakenly assumed they did with Camika Royal’s speech)? Of course not. These corps members chose to delete their posts, most likely because they were embarrassed. They did not ask to be thrown into the spotlight to be mocked by Gary and other bitter TFA alums (see picture below for a particularly mean-spirited and ignored example from the first post referenced), and Gary certainly did not ask for their permission.

CMs once had a safe space to reflect, share, and receive feedback as a community of people who were united by a deep commitment to student achievement. Gary does not seem aware that he is polluting this space, not with his critiques of TFA, which are often legitimate and needed, but with his hurtful mocking of CMs who are trying to better themselves as teachers. I’m not confident Gary will stop, so I ask that you realize the motivations behind his harsh words and instead seek out advice from people who have your interests and your students’ interests at heart.




20 Responses

  1. It is important to be tactful and patient with well-intentioned people. That said, I also think that whenever you put writing out into a publicly-viewable open forum like this, you are inherently opening yourself up to commentary, and there is no guarantee that all of it will be sweetness and light. This is something I especially wish more TFU bloggers (and teacher bloggers in general) would keep in mind when they post things about their students online! It’s one thing to put yourself out there, another to put your minor students out there as part of your own narrative.

    • S

      It *is* a public forum and people should understand some of the advantages/challenges of posting personal stories in public places.

      That said, I know I would be caught off guard and highly disturbed if, say, the founder of WordPress picked apart one of my posts (on what I thought was my own blog simply hosted on WordPress) to advance their own purposes.

      • That isn’t a very analogous analogy.

  2. Serge Vartanov

    I hesitate to call other people out by name so publicly, but the only way to stop bullying is to call it out. It took a lot of courage for you to write this post and it rings with truth. I’m glad I’m not the only person who was sick of watching Gary cherry-pick 1st year teacher’s reflections to build his tired narrative so he can sell more books and get more interviews. Thanks for writing this post and calling him out – maybe it will make him reconsider picking on 1st year teachers and stick to his own experiences

  3. Cal

    Parus is exactly right. The teachers are publishing their thoughts to the world. They are not entitled to consideration. I’ve always wondered why TFA pays for this forum, because the overall naivete of the teachers shines through loud and clear, and doesn’t speak well of the organization.

    Rubenstein is not bullying people by writing a reaction to their responses. If he causes people to think before they blather their idiocy to the world, he’s only helping the cause.

  4. meghank

    Also, I don’t know if you’ve ever been through a hellish first year such as Gary describes. I think you said you did a series of long-term substitute teaching assignments rather than an entire, hellish, first year. But if you’ve ever been through such a year, it helps to know you’re not alone. I think the first years having a hard time now are going to appreciate what Gary said in a few months. I certainly did.

  5. K

    I feel that TFA is deeply flawed and that certain things some bloggers write on this website reek of condescension and ignorance. That being said, I agree wholeheartedly with this post, Yoteach. It seems to me that Gary is sifting through new teachers’ posts with a fine-tooth comb in an effort to find something — anything — to hold up for ridicule. In so doing, he is making mountains out of molehills and leaping to some questionable conclusions about the beliefs and training that underlie the posters’ words and actions. I don’t believe for one second that any of his motives include being supportive or imparting genuine wisdom. I think, instead, that he’s trying to cause a stir, make a name for himself, embarrass pro-TFA voices into silence, and convince us of his overwhelming knowledge and superiority, largely because he’s miffed that TFA no longer invites him to Institute to conduct sessions in behavior management. Gary’s ranting was a comfort to me in my first year as a corps member — when I was bitter toward TFA and seeking validation of my anger — but I don’t think it’s made me or any of the bloggers he’s torn down better teachers. I agree that by posting on this website, corps members are opening themselves up to a whole array of responses, not all of them kind, rational, or productive; they then just need to be discerning about which voices they’re going to ascribe legitimacy to and take to heart.

  6. Gary Rubinstein

    Wow. Talk about ‘gang up on the old guy.’ The fact is that I am fascinated by examining people’s first years, particularly the moments just before, just at, and just after when things start to deteriorate. For me it is like when scientist ponder the Big Bang. Small mistakes in the first week later come back to bite the new teacher, even though at the time the mistakes didn’t seem so big.
    I said that it is my opinion, though I do hope I’m wrong, that this teachers year will get worse and worse. That doesn’t mean she will quit or even that she won’t teach her student. It just means that it will be a very large physical, emotional, and mental burden on this teacher.
    And I think I make it clear that this is not a dig on this teacher. She is doing what she was taught at the institute (or doing what she was not told to actively NOT do.) A brand new teacher should know that there is a danger in challenging your students to ‘math raps’ in middle school. As TFA is all about accountability and results, what does it say that this CM went into the first year not knowing this. Is it that they didn’t warn her? Is it that they did, but she didn’t learn it? In a sense, examining what these new teachers do is a sort of assessment on how well TFA did in training them. That’s what I try to extract from these first years. And I think most of these people (I don’t know how many times I’ve taken someone else’s post and done this — probably around 10 or 15 times ever — feel free to go though the posts to count them if you want) appreciate the honest feedback.
    I guess there is a danger that people will stop posting for fear that I will critique their posts. I try to make it clear each time that I’m not critiquing the teacher for doing what they were trained to do.

    For me, I’ve been studying ‘bad’ first years since my own 21 years ago. I will probably keep on doing it, but I’ll continue to add the disclaimer that I don’t mean these things as personal attacks.

    Teaching is hard. Everyone makes mistakes. I start a new year on Wednesday and I’m petrified of making mistakes. One piece of advice I give to new teachers is to learn the names within a day or two — yet, after teaching for 14 of the last 21 years, my mind isn’t as good with names anymore. It takes me weeks to learn the names, and even then I forget one from time to time. But in the back of my mind I feel very nervous when I don’t know all the names cold as if I’m still in my second year and the students could revolt at any minute if I make too many small mistakes. So I can relate to how tough it is to avoid all the mistakes possible.

    You might think that shaking hands is an OK thing to do. Maybe it is. I just think it is too risky. Everyone has their own tolerance for risk. And I feel like ‘math raps’ and challenging your students to them is also too risky.

    I’ve always liked this YoTeach blog, particularly the post before this one about the problem with extreme views on ed reform. I’ll look forward to more of your posts.

  7. Gary Rubinstein

    Sorry about my typos. Can’t edit the comments.

    • yoteach

      I appreciate the response Gary, and I do not like calling people out like this. I just am really worried that CMs are being hurt and are losing their confidence by being case studies in your research, and that this is, in the end, hurting students.

      Many have rightly pointed out that new CMs do often say problematic or ignorant things in their blog, and also can betray fundamental misunderstandings about teaching. This website is certainly a great forum to push back on a lot of these beliefs or actions in a productive way. If your goal is to help out individual CMs, maybe it would be better to post your critiques in the comment section of their blogs (for those that allow comments). But of course your major purpose (besides the political stuff) is to offer general advice for new teachers that is meant to be in contrast to much of the conventional wisdom. This advice is often big picture (like the high risk of the first day/weeks of school), and therefore unfortunately is mainly useful for forward looking teachers (rather than the teacher being called out). Perhaps you could craft those posts in a way that discusses the problematic thoughts or behaviors in a more anonymous way, studying trends rather than just one CM’s post, so that the CMs you are discussing are less likely to give up, and the rest will feel more willing to share (thus giving you more material to study).

      In general, I think you often do a good job of dispensing advice for a specific person, giving general advice, and poking holes in the TFA/choice narrative. My main problem comes when you try to do all three of these things in one post, and often, your mission of critiquing TFA ends up hurting the very CMs you are also trying to advise.

      Again, I appreciate your response, and hope that some of these suggestions may resonate with you, because I find your thoughts on teaching and education challenging in a compelling and exciting way.

      • parus

        It’s a little counterintuitive, maybe, but I think a person is less likely to get derisive criticism and more likely to get friendlier constructive criticism if they provide an open channel for feedback. In terms of blogging, I think the easiest ways to do this is to have comments open and a contact email posted. I have found this to be true in my classroom, too…if you don’t give people a place to talk, they will yell instead.

  8. Liz


  9. mary


  10. YoTeach has a point….

  11. 2011 in SA

    It is sadly ironic to find complaints about bullying directed at a veteran teacher who has steadfastly defended teachers against the pervasive and severe bullying they get at the hands of dogmatic reform politicians and test-minded administrators nationwide; and also at the hands of organizations like TFA and the New Teacher Project which deploy tag lines like “student achievement” and “the bigotry of low expectations” to inflict an undignified amount of guilt on teachers who fail to produce the transformational results of an exceptional few.
    Gary Rubinstein has courageously spoken against these trends when so many teachers in TFA muzzle themselves and the reality of their teaching history, whether out of guilt or out of fear for their careers.

    As a teacher, the author of this post should know better than to use the term “bully” so flippantly. Bullying means harassment with the intent to impress a sense of inferiority upon another. Bullying has zero constructive content, and for this reason it shuns a genuinely public eye. A bully does not present his deeds and words for the judgment of the public and offer space for feedback. Now let’s look at what Gary R. has written about posts by first year cms. He has explicitly stated his intent to *help* the corps members under discussion, and to use their experiences as”teachable moments for the other beginning teachers who may be liable to similar judgments which he finds erroneous. If you disagree with him about this, that’s a separate matter. But to refer to your intellectual adversary as a bully is actually to pose as one yourself by prejudicing all the ideas of the other side. It is a common discursive tactic in mudslinging politics, a cheapshot, but is not to be found in genuine dialogue.

    One gets the sense that you have read Gary’s writing with precisely this sort of prejudice. What else could explain your oversight of sentences like these: “This is a very well written blog and I really appreciate the honesty that I’ve read. To me, she is having an extremely ‘typical’ TFA experience, particularly for a middle school teacher” (Gary Rubinstein, “Is Bad Classroom Management Destiny?”) or “I do hope that Anna continues blogging. Teaching middle school math my first year is what nearly killed me. To quote Nietzsche “What does not kill me makes me stronger” so Anna, if she makes it through the year (I’m rooting for her), will be a very strong second year teacher.” Doesn’t sound like any bully I’ve ever seen.

    You claim that Gary’s blog merely poses as “advice” in order to advance a criticism of TFA that is “anything but new.” It’s not real advice, you say, because it is “un-actionable.” That is a quintessentially TFA-esque way of delimiting the idea of “advice.” Just because advice is not actionable does not mean it is not advice. Consolation in mourning is hardly actionable, yet it could be reasonably viewed as advice. Early in my horrendous first year last September, a fellow colleague told me, “honestly, man, it won’t get any better.” He was right. And if instead of looking for action items I had thought about his comment, I may have been more emotionally prepared for what was coming, and it may even have led me to take sooner the actions that ultimately rescued my teaching career (joining the union, reaching out beyond TFA). Your second argument that his advice merely furthers an unoriginal critique is a hallmark of assertive evasiveness. You did not say his ideas about improving teacher training in TFA were wrong, nor did you refute the absolute relevance of a corps member’s experience to this argument. You simply belittle this relevance by calling it “anecdotal.” Again, as a teacher, one would hope that you have gained a stronger appreciation for the meaningfulness of the “anecdote.” So much bullying of teachers – by policymakers, administrators, parents, filmmakers – stems from the disembodiment of the subject from actual events in the classroom. Instead, the discourse on education lives in a world of fairy-tale super-teacher myths or in the even murkier world of “research-based” pseudo-scientific analysis. When someone publishes an “anecdote,” a grain of reality from their classroom, there is no better occasion for the advancement and rethinking of critiques that may not be new, but may still be right.

    As a writer, the author of this post should reflect more carefully on the consequences of his post. In what he has framed as a defense of a teacher against a critic, the consequence of his advice, “don’t let yourself be bullied,” is that these anecdotes and the open dialogue they encourage will become ever more rare and hidden. Fewer corps members will share what it is actually like to teach in the hardest schools. Fewer morsels of truth will be available to rebut the most ridiculous ideas now being mooted about our education system. Fewer beginning teachers will benefit from the ear of well-meaning veteran teachers who can sympathize with them over the worst of what they face. The public picture of the teaching profession will be more distorted. It will be less honest. It will be more serviceable to organizations with political and profit motives. It will be unusable for disinterested critics and advocates.

    I am 2011 corps member and I care most about reversing this trend and giving the public a chance to see teaching, in Mathew Arnold’s phrase, “as it really is.” In its callous attack on another teacher, this post has shirked that responsibility. And I aspire (though often fail) to care more about the exposure of this reality than whether or not I feel bad.

    • yoteach

      Hi “2011 in SA”

      I appreciate this thoughtful critique of my post, and wanted to respond directly to you because I think you raise compelling—but I believe misguided—arguments against the motives, content and consequences of this post. Let me start with the most important:

      You say that I am using bullying as a discursive tactic, a way of tearing Gary Rubenstein down without actually contending with his arguments. If the point of my post was that we should not listen to Gary’s opinion on TFA, education, etc, then I think this would be a fair critique. But I actually really enjoy reading his views on TFA, and have responded directly to his arguments on numerous occasions (in my own posts and in his comments). I even end my piece saying that I think he has very legitimate critiques of TFA that I often agree with. But I specifically argued that this is not the point of my piece. My piece was intended as a wake up call to Gary (that was a bit optimistic) that would hopefully get him to rethink using specific 2012 CMs as a foil in the future. It was also meant to encourage 2012 CMs who are worried about being called out are demoralized from being called out in such a way. Given that I sympathize with his arguments, I think Gary damages his own critiques by framing his opinion in such a way. It hurts his cause by alienating all but those who dogmatically adhere to his worldview. Indeed, I am not trying to avoid the issues, I’m trying to get him to focus on them, and use means of argumentation that are less damaging to the teachforus platform and the teachers he is claiming to advise, and (I believe) more convincing for the not-already-convinced. Many supporters of Gary have agreed with me on this in both my comments and his.

      That get’s me to the second point. I’m not sure how you conceive of my post inhibiting dialogue. I hope it will encourage more 2012 CMs to share, to realize that its not worth holding back a post because of Gary’s potential response. I also hope it will get Gary to curb his attacks on specific CMs (we’ll get to that next), which will also encourage more responses. Hopefully he will be more thoughtful about whether the advice he gives is advice or a political point, and that will also let more CMs benefit who otherwise may have just been hurt by the scathing nature of his (typical) post. I also (and many commenters on his blog have said the same thing) hope this will make him more thoughtful of his tone so his advice is more likely to be taken by the CM: lord knows we will not take advice from someone we don’t believe is on our side. Moreover, is a climate where many CMs are afraid to share, and others are taking down their posts after being ridiculed one that is worth trying to preserve?

      Okay. So is it bullying? If you are willing to say that entire organizations are bullies (TFA and other reform movements) just because they have a different conception of teacher accountability than you do…well that is quite a low bar and I’d say the answer is certainly yes. But let’s look at (a) definition of a bully.

      “A person who uses strength or power to harm or intimidate those who are weaker.” (some google dictionary).

      I don’t know Gary’s intentions. I assume he does mean well, but that he does not think about how his posts come across. But the impression of his posts, the way it is read by many is that he is tearing down 2012 CMs to advance political arguments. Throw in the power dynamic of a big name and a suffering first year teacher, and I think there is a reasonable case to be made. Yes, he does often coat his more vicious critiques with flowery statements about liking their blog or trying to help, but given that he will often sandwich those phrases between a scathing, degrading title and a mocking of their practices (yes he often does make jokes at their expense), I (and probably they) find these fleeting phrases to be cloying and superficial. Moreover, I think there is a difference between advice and consolation, sympathy, etc, though of course those are all important. Good advice should be actionable. His “advice” is not, and since his tone precludes any real transfer of sympathy or consolation (on the whole), I am left wondering how the CM benefits from his remarks. I think the fact that so many posts are taken down after he attacks them are a testament to the fact that they don’t. If tearing down a CM was necessary to reach some deeper understanding about teaching or TFA, that would be a different issue, but often he mocks them just to rehash the point that institute is not long enough. I don’t think he needs to mock CMs to make that point: it’s a pretty easy point to be made. I am frustrated because there are so many other interesting ways to make that claim (looking at alternative certification programs like Match’s one year residency), but he resorts to this unconvincing and hurtful approach.

      In the end, I doubt I will convince you of anything. But I wanted to respond to your argument out of respect. Notice that I did not engage with you about the merits of TFA/corporate reform, etc. That is not because I am trying to distract from those issues, it’s because I don’t necessarily disagree with you on all counts. That’s why I like reading Gary, and (often) responding to what he writes. But I honestly was getting too upset seeing CM after CM being mocked for sharing about their management. As part a community of people who all care about helping students and who all agree that teachers (TFA or otherwise) are not the enemies, I find that kind of behavior unconstructive. We’ll see in a few months whose right about the changing dynamics of TeachForUs in the coming months I guess.

      • 2011 in SA

        Apologies that this reply is being written in haste. YoTeach, your intent to encourage a healthy and supportive kind of criticism is wholly admirable. However, that is fundamentally different from the leap you have made to calling another teacher a “bully.” In this sense, it is ironic that you meant the post to be a caution about proper tone. Second, your reply has basically conceded the empty merits of this epithet. Instead of pointing to any bullish text in Rubinstein’s posts that would justify describing him as such, you premise the issue on “the impression of his posts, the way it is read by many.” This is circular logic, since you are the one defining that impression and the way the posts are read, not Gary. So on this count you could attack him for anything you wanted, not anything he has actually done. Again, it is mystifying how you have construed his posts as “attacks on CMs.” This is simply not consistent with the text or the record. Gary has hosted web talks for CMs across the nation to share their experiences and get advice from him. An entire set of links on his blog is devoted to “advice for corps members.” Additionally, you have distorted the definition of “bully” to fit this argument. Bully does not just mean anything interpreted as intimidation of the weaker by the stronger, but actually intended intimidation. Reading Gary’s blog for about 30 seconds would tell you that he has no perception of himself as the “powerful.” And even a cursory reading of the posts about CMs shows that nothing in them is meant to intimidate. Finally, you claim not to want to inhibit dialogue. I would think more carefully about the way you title and frame your posts in that case. “CMs, do not let yourselves be bullied” sounds frighteningly close to, “CMs, stop writing about what’s going on for fear you’ll be criticized.” Criticism is not bullying, and we should welcome it.

        • yoteach

          Please read my post again, because you have clearly missed those middle paragraphs where I make my case thoroughly through examples. I didn’t bring up more because I believe I made my case well enough there, and don’t want to speak ill more than I need to. Everything I wrote to you was just to complement that, to give you my intentions. The opening and closing lines of my post is to tell them to take advice from those who have their intentions at heart. That is not saying to stop, and I’m pretty sure we all can agree that don’t let yourself be bullied never means run away and hide, which is what you seem to think I am implying. Given my readership and his, it is beyond crazy to think my warning will inhibit discussion more than his attacks. My tone was harsh, but I believe fair, so that it would get his attention, and perhaps build some empathy for him. It think I succeeded there. Moreover, it was done intentionally, so the irony you see is not there. And any reading of Gary’s posts inevitably elucidates how many people read his blog. That’s power, at least in relative terms, and it can be seen as implicit intimidation by those who are victims. Regardless of your feelings of my methodology, tone, or labeling, people are now speaking up, and that was my intention. I’m glad he responded, and provided another forum for discussion.

  12. Actual Teacher

    If you’re going to pretend to be a teacher after an inadequate five-week crash course, as a part of an organization that’s bent on deprofessionalizing teaching and damaging the education system, don’t be surprised when someone with more experience isn’t forgiving about your mistakes and misconceptions and calls you out on them.

  13. JasonFromHouston

    Actual Teacher,

    Forgive me first for responding to an old post, and second for heartily disagreeing with you. I have nothing but respect and love for veteran teachers: as a matter of fact, two friends of mine are veterans and they were the genesis of my desire to become a teacher.

    No one with any sense should assume that Institute is any kind of substitute for years of experience as a professional educator; however, some of us have the desire to teach but lack the financial resources to follow the traditional route (in Texas, alt-certification is about a year-long process, and I work full-time and have a family: I’m not a 21-year-old kid in college). For us, TFA is a blessing, as it allows those of us with ambition and desire to become teachers. I know I will make many mistakes and errors, oh yes; however, my intentions are pure. I would like to think that the veterans would be willing to guide the new teachers, instead of perceiving them as a threat and “calling them out”.

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